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It was the beginning of the 20th century that Mahatma Gandhi said,” the soul of India lives in its villages .” the Indian census of 2011 states that 68%of Indians live in villages. the people live in rural areas are involved in different forms of activities that help them earn their livelihood to meet the needs of families in terms of food, shelter and other social requirements.

on the basis of the nature of work done by the occupations can be classified in three categories:

PRIMARY OCCUPATION: those jobs related to land, such as agriculture and related activities.

SECOMDARY OCCUPATION: those jobs in which natural products are changed in to other forms through ways of manufacturing such as industries.

TERTIARY OCCUPATIONS :those jabs that provide services such as banking, transport and communication etc.


the villages of India are mostly involved in their basic occupation .though earlier there used to be primitive methods of carrying on this process of cultivation, but now a days due to innovation methods, farmers are able to grow wheat, rice, lentils, vegetables, fruits and many other crops in order to meet the challenging task of feeding their families and the nation. based on the area of land of farmers have been classified in to four categories:

1.LANDLESS FARMERS: these are the farmers who do not possess any land of their own . they work on land of other farmers on a daily wage basis. most of there are living in poverty and misery.

2.SMALL FARMERS: these are the farmers having less than 2 hectares of agricultural land they are mostly subsistence farmers. these farmers , mostly leave their lands after ploughing until harvesting season and go to the cities to do manual work and earn money to add family’s total income. some of small farmers have to sell their produce to the moneylenders in order to pay their debts. since farming is a seasonal occupations , the small farmers and landless labourers are often forced to borrow money at high interest rates when they have very little or no work to do. thus they are quite often in a state of rural indebtedness. Rural indebtedness refers to that state of existence in which farmers get trapped in the vicious circle of poverty and debt . landless labourers and small farmers often fall victim to the rural indebtedness and commit suicide.. crop failure is another cause for the suicide in many parts of the country as the farmers find it difficult to pay back loans to grow crops.

3. MIDDLA OR MEDIUM FARMERS: these are the farmers with the land area between two hectares to five hectares . they mostly use common agriculture implements for cultivation and harvesting . however, some hire tractors and thresher for planting and harvesting.

4.LARGE FARMERS: these are farmers with the land area more than five hectares . most of these farmers employ other landless farmers and pay them in cash or kind for cultivation and harvesting . these farmers use modern agriculture implements such as the tractor , harvesters, thresher , etc. these farmers are wealthy and live a luxurious life. their farming is mostly a commercial farming. some of these farmers also carry out other activities like trading and owing mills and shops as well.


. Our government launched the community development programme in 1952 with the aim of developing the villages and improving agriculture production.

. The farmers were provided with the latest technology.

. Branches of many banks have been opened in villages to provide loans on easy terms to the farmers and other residents of the village.

. In certain areas , our government gave land to landless labourers to make them self-reliant.

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