SPECIES DIVERSITY:BIOLOGICAL DISCUSSION

In this world there are different kind of species. Each species have different sense of taste, smell, etc, ….. Many species are evolving in this earth and they are came from different genera. Let us discuss about this species clearly. Species Diversity is simply the number and relative abundance of species found in a given biological organization ( population, ecosystem, earth ), species are the basic units of biological classification and hence, this is the measure most commonly associated with the term ‘ biodiversity ‘.

Species diversity is the measure of biological diversity observed in a particular ecological community indicating a number of species or species richness in an ecological community. Example- woodland forest comprising 4-5 different species of trees. Biodiversity boosts ecosystem productivity where each species, no matter how small, all have an important role to play. For example- A larger number of plant species means a greater variety of crops. Greater species diversity ensures natural sustainability foe all life forms.

Species richness is simply the number of species in a community. Species diversity is more complex, and includes a measure of the number of species in a community, and a measure of the abundance of each species, .. species evenness is a description of the distribution of abundance across the species in a community.

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The immigration of ‘new’ species to a region causes net diversity to increase when these species become established. … This is because interactions between species, and interactions between species and their physical environment, will have a significant effect on the total number of species within a local area. Biodiversity is very important to humans for many reasons, .. Ecological life support-biodiversity provides functioning ecosystem that supply oxygen, clean air and water, pollination of plants, pest control, wastewater treatment and many ecosystem services.

Most people recognize biodiversity by species-a group of individual living organisms that can interbreed. Examples of species include blue whales, white-tailed deer, white pine trees, sunflowers, and microscopic bacteria that can’t even be seen by the naked eye.

The factors related to these patterns of small-scale species richness include

  1. Geographic factors such as scale of observation, available species pool and dispersal patterns.
  2. Biotic factors such as competition or predation
  3. Abiotic environment factors such as site resource availability, disturbance .

species components consists of two components

  • Species richness
  • Species evenness

Amazonia represents the quintessence of biodiversity-the richest ecosystem on earth, yet a study by Smithsonian scientists, published this week in the journal science, shows that differences in species composition of tropical forests are greater over distance in panama than in Amazonia.

Firstly, low biodiversity means that the trophic system is likely less functional, since there are less species in the various tropic levels, meaning the paths of energy and nutrients are fewer in number.