Agriculture is a major source of levelihood in rural sector. Mahatama Gandhi once said that the” real progress of India did not mean simply the growth and expansion of industrial urban centres but mainly the development of villages“.
Have you ever think that what is the main cause that one – fourth of rural India still lives in abject poverty.Major reasons are Disguised Unemployment ,Seasonal Unemployment and many other .
Disguised Unemployment – It is a type of employment in which more worker are employed than the amount actually needed.It is also called the “hidden employment”. Suppose a farmer has two acre of land and he needs two worker and he himself will work with them on his farm. But ,if he employs his two children and wife this is known as disguised employment.where the earning will be same but workers increased and” one third of agriculture workers in India as disguisedly employed”.
Seasonal Unemployment – In villages for some month there are no employment opportunities due to which people migrate to an urban area they pick p job and stay there for some time and come back as rainy season arises but unfoetunately some people doesn’t find any work in seasonsal umployment .So, they have to depend on landlords and zamindars for loan which they have to pay later with high intrest.
Moneylender and traders exploited small and marginal farmer and landless labourers by lending them on high intrest rates and by manipulating the accounts to keep them in debt traps. Whenever landlords give loan they forced small farmer that they have to sell thier crops to them and then they buy it on less than market price. Small farmer don’t say anything because they know that they have to depend on them for loan.
Steps taken by Government for Improvement:
Mahatma Gandhi national rural employment guarantee act (MGNREGA 2005 act) – It promises 100 days of guaranteed wage employment to rural households who volunteer to do unskilled manual work .This scheme is implemented by government to generate employment.
Credit – This social banking introduced to meet their initial investment on seeds, fertilisers and many other expenses.Recently “Selp help groups” have emerged to fill the gap in formal credit system. Formal credit mechaism has not proven adequate for marginal farmer and labourers because some kind of collateral is required to take the loan from credit system due to which vast proportion of rural household are automatically out of credit network.
As agriculture is already overcrowded , a major proportion of increasing labour force need to find alternate employment opportunities in other non- farm sector such as animal husbanderies,fisheries and horticulture etc.