Humans beings always have the interaction with the natural ecosystems and have created artificial ecosystems to to fit their needs. Humans golus dealing with nature has been to obtain the material and foods that are immediately necessary for survival. However their activities have made survival more difficult. In an attempt to turn a greater part of the earth’s productivity to satisfy humans, there is need to avoid acting in ways that will make that productivity less available to mankind in future. Rural area population growth is resulting in growing land fragmentation in rural under employment and out-migration. Cleaning of new land for agriculture is a response to pressure on the land increasing land fragmentation and lack of adequate off farm rural employment opportunities.
God has cared for these trees, saved them from drought, disease, avalanches, and a thousand tempests and floods. But he cannot save them from fools.
– John Muir
Forest play an important role in maintaining and ecological balance and improving their livelihood of people especially in the arid and semi-arid areas is no longer an issue of debate. People are aware of the general importance of trees but few seem to understand the importance of forest as living systems. For instance if trees are cut and not replace the lost habitats will bring about the extinction of plant and animal life which will decrease the genetic pool available for mankind’s survival. Global level forest and other woodlands cover about 8.4 % of the earth’s land surface and supplies human with basic products such as food, meat and milk. Vegetation is the heart of life as it provides the bulk of food for human beings, animals and is there is source of energy among many other users. Trees are crucial link in the hydrological cycle and in the regulation of water in the catchment areas.
Forestation has the subject come serious problem because energy demand for wood charcoal have increased and land has been c learned for agriculture and settlement. Decline in tree and Bush cover has thus reduced soil productivity and promoted soil erosion. Increasing population density in fertile highland areas road constructions and government policies promoting privatisation lead to deforestation and resulting soil erosion on the rich volcanic soil stops as well as decrease in fallow periods nearby poor soil lowland areas resulting in soil degradation and desertification. Each Of the human influence affects forests differently, and the magnitude of the effects will depend strongly on the methods employed locally, the forest type, and on other factors within and around the ecosystem. For example, commercial logging in temperature forests is often by clear cutting, which entirely removes forest cover in some areas and fragments remaining forest cover.
In general human activities tend to affect any of three major aspects of forests: 1) The total area of forest remaining – many of man’s activities remove forest cover either temporarily or permanently. Some forest types may disappear locally, and reduction in the total amount of habitat is a significant pressure on some forest species that can lead to local extinction. 2) The configuration of remaining forest cover – reduction in forest area is often accompanied by division of remaining forest cover into fragments, rather than continuous blocks. 3) The structure and composition of remaining forest – some human activities alter canopy structure, or focus disproportionately on particular species and specific components of their populations.