The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) is India’s central bank, which controls the issue and supply of the Indian rupee. RBI is the regulator of entire Banking in India. RBI plays an important part in the Development Strategy of the Government of India. RBI regulates commercial banks and non-banking finance companies working in India. It serves as the leader of the banking system and the money market. It regulates money supply and credit in the country. The RBI carries out India’s monetary policy and exercises supervision and control over banks and non- banking finance companies in India. RBI was set up in 1935 under the Reserve Bank of India Act,1934. Until the Monetary Policy Committee was established in 2016, it also controlled monetary policy in India. It commenced its operations on 1 April 1935 in accordance with the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934. The original share capital was divided into shares of 100 each fully paid . Following India’s independence on 15 August 1947, the RBI was nationalized on 1 January 1949. The central bank is an independent apex monetary authority which regulates banks and provides important financial services like storing of foreign exchange reserves, control of inflation, monetary policy report till August 2016. A central bank is known by different names in different countries. The functions of a central bank may vary from country to country and are autonomous or body and perform or through another agency vital monetary functions in the country. A central bank is a vital financial apex institution of an economy and the key objects of central banks may differ from country to country still they perform activities and functions with the goal of maintaining economic stability and growth of an economy.
The Central Board of Directors is at the top of the Reserve Bank’s organizational structure. Appointed by the Government under the provisions of the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934, the Central Board has the primary authority and responsibility for the oversight of the Reserve Bank. It delegates specific functions to the Local Boards and various committees. The Governor is the Reserve Bank’s chief executive. The Governor supervises and directs the affairs and business of the RBI. The management team also includes Deputy Governors and Executive Directors. The Central Government nominates fourteen Directors on the Central Board, including one Director each from the four Local Boards. The other ten Directors represent different sectors of the economy, such as, agriculture, industry, trade, and professions. All these appointments are made for a period of four years. The Government also nominates one Government official as a Director representing the Government, who is usually the Finance Secretary to the Government of India and remains on the Board ‘during the pleasure of the Central Government’. The Reserve Bank Governor and a maximum of four Deputy Governors are also ex officio Directors on the Central Board.
The Reserve Bank also has four Local Boards, constituted by the Central Government under the RBI Act, one each for the Western, Eastern, Northern and Southern areas of the country, which are located in Mumbai, Kolkata, New Delhi and Chennai. Each of these Boards has five members appointed by the Central Government for a term of four years. These Boards represent territorial and economic interests of their respective areas, and advise the Central Board on matters, such as, issues relating to local cooperative and indigenous banks. They also perform other functions that the Central Board may delegate to them.
The Reserve Bank has a network of offices and branches through which it discharges its responsibilities. The units operating in the four metros — Mumbai, Kolkata, Delhi and Chennai — are known as offices, while the units located at other cities and towns are called branches. Currently, the Reserve Bank has its offices, including branches, at 27 locations in India. The offices and larger branches are headed by a senior officer in the rank of Chief General Manager, designated as Regional Director while smaller branches are headed by a senior officer in the rank of General Manager.