Personality development is for two purposes: one is to achieve success in material life and the other is to achieve success in spiritual life. For both purposes it requires to have balanced and developed faculties like physical body with sharp sense organs and working organs, concentration, memory, sensitivity, emotions like love (concern) and enlightened ego, will power, confidence, courage, good discrimination, intelligence and many others. Power, fame and money or all the three are one set of components of life. Though they are considered harmful to human growth, these are important for getting success in material life. Man can use them for betterment of society. Simplicity, knowledge, and happiness or all the three are another set of components of life and they are important for getting success in spiritual life. These can be achieved only by development of personality. What is personality?
The word personality comes from the Latin word persona which means the ‘mask’. The masks were used in dramas to show different characters, emotions and behaviour. In Sanskrit ‘vyaktitva’ is the word for personality, which means the essence of vyakti (human being). Hence, personality means the essence of character and behaviour of a individual. It has two important dimensions: one is internal and the other is the external.
Determinants of Personality Development:-
The following are the determinants of personality development-
Heredity: Heredity refers to those factors that were determined at conception. Physical structure, facial attractiveness, gender, temperament, muscle composition and reflexes, energy level and biological rhythms are the characteristics that are generally considered to be either completely or substantially influenced by what your parents were, that is by their biological, physiological and inherent psychological make-up.
Environment: The environmental factors that exert pressures on our personality formation are the culture in which we are raised, our early conditioning, the norms among our family, friends and social groups, and other influences that we experience. The environment to which we are exposed plays a substantial role in shaping our personality.
Situation: The third factor, the situation, influences the effects of heredity and environment on personality. An individual’s personality, although generally stable and consistent, does change in different situations. The varying demand of different situations calls forth different aspects of one’s personality. We should not, therefore, look upon personality patterns in isolation.
Dimensions of Personality:-
Internal personality is as deep as the ocean and as expansive as space. Scientists of the present era have been doing their research on the external world by using their external personality but all the seers in ancient India have done their research using their internal personality. The internal personality of a human being has five bodies’ i.e. physical body, mental body, emotional body, intellectual body and spiritual body. All these bodies are inter-connected, inter-related and interdependent with each other.
Nobody is an island, an individual is constantly in relation with the external world and always interacts with it i.e. material world, vegetable world, animal world, human being (family, society, nation and humanity) and cosmos. Everything in this universe is an expression of an ultimate force. Hence, they are inter-connected, inter-related and inter-dependent with each other.
Need for Personality Development:-
Will-power is one of the key factors necessary to develop personality. It is a phenomenon which lies in human mind. It needs to be groomed, shaped and exploited. Concentration, meditation and faith can be of great help in this regard. All the great persons of the world who rose to the height of success were all of strong will. All the geniuses, scholars and eminent personalities had this trait in abundance. It was their will which helped and guided them to rise against all odds. They changed the direction of wind in their favour. The people of will never step back in face of adversaries. They have full confidence in their will. Thus, they believe and taste success at the end of the day.
Strong will leads to the development of self-confidence. Self-confidence is very important to succeed in life. A person who has confidence in his work will not give up in the face of difficulties. He will fight courageously unless and until he succeeds in getting his target achieved. Failures and hardships do not discourage a confident person. It is his confidence which promotes him to try again and again. Concentration is an important ingredient of personality development. Concentration helps in exploiting the potentiality hidden in human beings. Good habit and memory vitalize the efficiency of mind. They help in acquiring the power of concentration. They contribute in success. It is the power of concentration which gives strength to even the weakest creature.
In addition, a large number of external, inherent and acquired qualities contribute to build up the personality. These qualities include integrity, humility, self respect, etc. all these factors combine to shape the personality of a man. These cannot be cultivated within a day or two. It should be inculcated from early childhood. Both parents and teachers have a significant role in the personality development of an individual person.