Areas of gender discrimination:

(Gender discrimination refers to the discrimination against a person or group on the basis of his/ her sex or gender identity. In other words, it is the practice of granting or denying rights or privileges to a person based on his or her gender. Discrimination based on sex or gender can also be defined as adverse action against another person, which would not have occurred had the person been of another sex. This is considered a form of prejudice and is illegal in certain circumstances in most countries. Gender discrimination can arise in different contexts. For instance, an employee may be discriminated against by not being hired, promoted, or being wrongfully terminated based on his
or her gender. Socially, sexual differences have been used to justify different roles for men and women, in some cases giving rise to claims of primary and secondary roles. While there are alleged non-physical differences between men and women, major reviews of academic literature on gender difference find only a tiny minority of characteristics where there are consistent psychological differences between men and women, and these relate directly to experiences grounded in biological difference. However, there are also some psychological differences in regard to how problems are dealt with and emotional perceptions and reactions which may relate to hormones. Unfair discrimination usually follows gender stereotyping held by a society. Gender discrimination exists to different extents in all societies. Whether it occurs in a blatant or subtle way, gender discrimination has a negative impact on individuals
and the community.

Although gender discrimination is traditionally viewed by as problem normally encountered by women, it affects
men as well. For instance, job customarily and historically held mainly by women, like nurses, childcare providers and flight mainly are often denied to men based on social stigmas. In many countries while widows get bereavement benefit, there is no equivalent benefit for widowers. Paternity leave for men is quite no rare and is offered only in certain countries or sectors.

Family and Home:

Gender discrimination often begins at home, Son preference, as we know, is widespread in India. It is also
prevalent in China, North Korea and Pakistan. Female infants girls and women are prejudiced against when it comes to
nutrition, health care or education. Due to the advances in technology, determining the sex of
the foetus in the womb is now possible. Though sex determination tests are illegal in India, the practice of finding
out the sex of the foetus is quite common. This often leads t aborting fetuses if it is female (female foeticide). The killing of female infants (female infanticide) is also common widespread practice of female foeticide and infanticide has led to a skewed sex ratio in countries like India and China. Sex ratio is the ratio of females to males in a population
Sex ratio is an important social indicator to measure the extent of prevailing equity between males and females at a given point of time.

Sex Ratio is defined as the number of females perI000 the males. extent Sex of Ratio prevailing is an equity important between social males indicator and female measures a given point of time. It is mainly the outcome of the interplay of
sex differentials in mortality, sex selective migration, sex ratio at birth and at times the sex differential in population
enumeration, The average natural sex ratio for humans from birth is approximately 105:100. Scientists are not sure why there are 105 males born for every 100 females around the world.

Sex ratio (females per thousand males)

India 933 Rural 946 Urban 9000
State with Highest Female Sex Ratio Kerala 1,058
State with Lowest Female Sex Ratio Haryana 861
UT with Highest Female Sex Ratio
Pondicherry 1,001
UT with Lowest Female Sex Ratio
Daman & Diu 710
District with Highest Female Sex Ratio Mahe
(Pondicherry) 1,147
District with Lowest Female Sex Ratio Daman
(Daman& Diu) 591
Source: Census Data 2001

According to the 2001 census, the sex ratio of India stands at 933:1000 (there are 933 females for every 1000 males). It is heavily skewed in favor of males, showing that Indian society is still prejudiced against females. The population sex ratio for Tamil Nadu has increased from 974 females per 1,000 males in 1991 to 986 in 2001. This is true of most States. Only four States among those with a population exceeding 20 million in 2001 Haryana, Gujarat, Maharashtra and Punjab decline in population sex ratios between 1991 and 2001. However, Tamil Nadu’s child sex ratio – defined as the number of girls per 1,000 boys in the age group of 0-6 years shows a decline from 948 in 1991 to 939 in 2001. The decline in child sex ratios in some districts of the State is quite alarming report . The family can be seen as one of the main sites of gender a discrimination as most human behavioral patterns can be traced to what people learn at home. Women and men are often treated unequally in the family. In most households, the father or some other male member, is considered the head of the family, and hence, the center of authority.
Women, as we know, generally do most of the domestic chores like cooking and cleaning and are responsible for child
care. In most Indian households, domestic work is considered woman’s area of sphere, while work done outside the home is the man’s sphere. The distribution of work and roles in the family based on sex is called gender division of l

To understand the problems with gender division of labor one must understand the concept of social reproduction or simply ‘reproduction’. As opposed to production (which is work done in the market, for instance, work done in a factory manufacturing cars), reproduction refers to the whole range of activities that allow human beings to continue their lives household wort cooking, cleaning, washing, caring for children, ill, old socializing of the new generation. Without these things, it impossible for any production to happen.

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