Poverty as an issue:
One of the biggest challenges faced by rural India is Poverty.We are not talking about the places like Punjab where the agriculture and people live with colours.
The issue is about the backward places and actual rural places in India. Even states like Odisha and Jharkhand who are very rich in resources are considered the poorest states in India. Poverty is an interdependent aspect of the society. The most it is dependant on is the literacy rate. Other backward areas , Naxalite areas are still very far away from attaining the correct information and education. These people are not even aware of the relaxations and schemes of the government for their welfare. The most that is holding back people in these rural areas is adaptation.
They are nit very familiar with the concept of change with time. They bind themselves inside their old practices when there is much more to learn and excel in. The stereotypes and old practices cause them to loose assets for them.For example the girls are not educated and are not used as assets who can earn in future. They are considered as a burden and hence are thought only for the marriage purposes.The main reason for poverty in the rural society is because rural people do have the resources but they are bot aware as of how to use their resources.
Some provisions given by the government for poverty alleviation are:
Wages programmes like:
Jawahar Rozgar Yojhna/ Gram Samridhi YojhnaThe NREP and RLEGP were merged in April 1989 under the Jawahar Rozgar Yojhna. The JRY was meant to generate meaningful employment opportunity for the unemployed and underemployed in rural areas through the creation of economic infrastructure. A major proportion of JRY funds was spent on roads and buildings. Over 47 per cent of the employment generated benefited SC/STs. The share of landless labourers among the beneficiaries was 36 per cent. The village community found the assets created under the programme useful:
Employment Assurance Scheme:
The Employment Assurance Scheme (EAS) was launched on 2 October 1993 covering 1,778 drought-prone, desert, tribal and hill area blocks. It was later extended to all the blocks in 1997-98. The EAS was designed to provide employment in the form of manual work in the lean agricultural season. The works taken up under the lean agricultural season.
Self Employment programmes like:·
The coverage of beneficiaries in the Ninth plan was considerably lower than the coverage under SGSY. The formation of self-help groups by itself contributes to the empowerment and economic well-being of the poor by improving their collective bargaining position. The group formation also emphasises social capital and enables the poor to Interact with other social groups from a position of strength. Group formation would continue to be the Focus under the SGSY.
NGOs have an inherent advantage in· · Reaching the poor due to their proximity, the trust. They generate by working in the area, their. Commitment, flexibility in approach, responsiveness.And cost effectiveness. They have played a dynamic role as social animators and organisers in rural areas. Many NGOs have not only been instrumental in the formation of self-help groups but· Have also nurtured them over the years. Such NGOs have a strong presence in many states. However, voluntary and non-governmental action is weak in some of the poorer states. These are also the states where the spirit of cooperation and collaboration may be lacking because of poverty Itself.
Training of social animators would have to be promoted in such states. Departments of social sciences, social work, agriculture and rural development in universities and colleges could be engaged as facilitators in the process of group formation so that every rural habitation has at least one self-help group by the end of 2004.Many more reforms are suggested by the government for different aspects which affect the lifestyle and habitat of the people.