Types of Negotiable Instruments
The types of negotiable expand a lot. some of the very common ones are promissory notes, certificate of deposit , money orders etc.
These checks can only be authorized by a person if they deposit money in the bank and clearly justify the sum of money and the name of the person to whom the cheque is addressed to with the name of the bearer of the check.
Advantages of Checks:
No cash is required and big amounts can be transferred hassle free.
If money gets lost it can’t be recovered but check transactions can be stopped from depositing, if lost.
Disadvantages of Personal Checks:
- Personal checks are not always taken easily everywhere.
In the fast pace world of technology checks are relatively sluggish and their processing takes time.
2. Travellers Check:
Travellers checks are convenient for people who are in foreign countries for any of the following temporary situations such as vacations, work visits, trading etc. these checks can be used as an alternative for the respective foreign currency which makes the travel hassle free and reduces currency exchange which results in more following of the social distancing protocol.
“These checks are generally issues by financial institutions with serial no. and in prepaid fixed amounts”. A dual signature system is generally followed in which the signature of the buyer of the check has to sign at the time of issuing of the check and later another signature is required while using the check. The two signature are mandatory to match for the financial institutions to issue the check and guarantee the payment.
Advantages of Travellers:
- Hassle free and safe travel is enabled because no big amounts of money are carried around.
- The banks back up for most of the stolen or lost checks and even sometimes provide security money for the same.
Disadvantages of Travellers check:
- This whole system depends on the double signature system too much and as we understand that signatures can be easily forged it is not the most secure method to carry and transfer money.
- Debit and credit cards are a more convenient way nowadays compared to travellers checks.
Promissory notes are handwritten promises between 2 parties. One party is the one liable to pay that is; payor and the other one is the receiver that is payee. These handwritten documents hold promises of the payor to pay the payee a certain sum of the money in future. These notes also contain all the important aspects for a promise to be relevant. These information includes specified principle amount, interest rate, term length ,date of insurance and signature of the payor.
“These at first enables a person, people or a co operation to obtain financing from a source other than a bank or financial institution. Those who issue a promissory note become lenders.”
4. Money Order:
The holder of money orders are paid a promised amount as mentioned in the money order. These are available across easily and are generally issued by financial organisations and governments also. Money orders differ by the limit of amount of order that is typically One thousand Dollars.
These resemble checks but the main difference is that there is little personal detail mentioned in the money orders compared to checks.
5. Bill of exchange:
“A Bill of Exchange is a binding agreement by one party to pay a fixed amount of cash to another party as of a predetermined date or on demand”
These are basically used for international trade purposes. These have become more powerful.
To understand it in detail the following example is suitable:
If Mr. Varun orders Mr. Jatin to pay Rs.85000 for 60 days and Mr. Jatin signs his name to accept the order given by Mr. Varun then it is called a bill of exchange.
But sometimes due to financial inadequacy or different circumstances the seller and the purchaser cannot pay off immediately generally after which a promise is signed for future credit to be paid and this promise is drafted in a written format after which it turns into a legal instrument of value.
NOTE: “These instruments can often be accepted by banks and we can advance money against them. Also, we can also endorse the instrument that is, pass it to another person.”
Features of Bill Of Exchange:
- “A bill of exchange is an instrument in writing”
- “It is drawn and signed by the maker i.e. drawer of the bill.”
- “It contains an unconditional order to a person i.e. drawee.”
- “To make an instrument of value the drawee must accept it.”
- “The specified amount is payable to the person whose name is mentioned in the bill or to his order or to the bearer.”
- “It specifies the date by which amount should be paid.”
- “Payment of the bill must be in the legal currency of the country.”
- “It must be properly stamped”.
- “It must bear a revenue stamp”.
5. Post Dated Cheque: