The formal study of light began as an effort to explain vision. Early Greek thinkers associated with a ray emitted from the human eye. A surviving work from Euclid, the Greek geometrician, laid out basic concepts of perspective, using straight lines to show why objects at a distance appear shorter or slower than they actually are. Eleventh-century Islamic scholar Abu Ali al Hasan Ibn Al-Haytham known also by the Latinized name Alhazen revisited the work done by Euclid and Ptolemy and advanced the study of reflection, refraction, and color. He argued that light moves out in all directions from illuminated objects and that vision results when light enters the eye. In the late 16th and 17th centuries, researches including Dutch mathematician Willebrord Snel noticed that light bent as it passed through a lens or fluid. Although he believed the speed of light to be infinite, Danish astronomer Ole Romar in 1676 used telescopic observations of Jupiter moons to estimate the speed of light as 140,000 miles a second. Around the same time, Sir Isaac Newton used prisms to demonstrate that white light could be separated into a spectrum of basics colors. He believed that light was made of particles, where as Dutch mathematician Christiaan Huygens described light as a wave.
The particle versus the wave debate advanced in the 1800s. English physician Thomas young’s experiments with vision suggested wavelike behavior, since sources of light seemed to cancel out or reinforce each other. Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell’s research united the forces of electromagnetism fell along a single spectrum. Te arrival of quantum physics in late 19th and early 20th century prompted the next leap in understanding light. By studying the emission of electrons from a grid hit by a beam of light known as the photoelectric effect Albert Einstein concluded that light came from what he called photons, emitted as electrons changed their orbit around an atomic nucleus and then jumped back to their original state. Through Einstein’s finding seemed to favor the particle theory of light, further experiments showed that light and matter itself behave both as waves and as particles.
How do lasers works?
Einstein’s work on the photoelectric effect led to the laser, an acronym for “light amplification by stimulated emission radiation.” As electrons are exited from one quantum state to another, they emit a single photon when jumping back. But Einstein predicted that when an already excited atom was hit with the right type of stimulus, it would give off two identical photons. Subsequent experiments showed that certain source materials, such as ruby, not only did that but also emitted photons that were perfectly coherent-not scattered like the emissions of a flashlight, but all of the same wavelength and amplitude. These powerfully focused beams are now common-place, found in grocery store scanners, handheld pointers, and cutting instruments from the hospital operating room to the shop floors of heavy industry.
Future trends in fiber optics communication
Fiber optics communication is definitely the future of data communication. The evolution of fiber optic communication has been driven by advancement in technology and increased demand for fiber optic communication. It is expected to continue into the future, with the development of new and more advanced communication technology.
Another future trend will be the extension of present semiconductor lasers to a wider variety of lasing wavelengths. Shorter wavelength lasers with very high input powers are of interest in some high density optical applications. Presently, laser sources which are spectral shaped through chirp managing to compensate for chromatic dispersion are available. Chirp managing means that the laser is controlled such that it undergoes a sudden change in its wavelength when firing a pulse, such that the chromatic dispersion experienced by the pulse is reduced. There is need to develop instruments to be used to characterize such lasers. Also, single mode tunable lasers are of great importance for future coherent optical systems. These tunable lasers laser in a single longitudinal mode that can be tuned to a range of different frequencies.
“Music is the arithmetic of sounds as optics is the geometry of light.” – Claude Debussy