Although it sounds complex, Logical Reasoning is a simple process that involves effective thinking. It is put into action when we ask questions like, “If this is true, what else is true?, If this isn’t true, what else couldn’t be true?” These questions raised are inferences, they form connections between the given primary sentence and the secondary sentence. There are rigid rules that determine if something can be considered an inference or not.
If there are puddles of water on the road, it rained yesterday.
Considering this sentence to be true, the following sentence could also be true.
- If there are no puddles of water on the road, it wouldn’t have rained yesterday.
- Just because there are puddles of water on the road, it doesn’t mean that it rained yesterday.
Ludwig Wittgenstein states that, “Logic takes care of itself; all we have to do is to look and see how it does it.”
There are two types of Logical reasoning that are categorized by their respective inferences.
Deductive Logical Reasoning:
Deductive logical reasoning is identified when the secondary sentence in accordance with the primary sentence, must be true. For example, if it is true that there are always puddles of water while it rains and it’s true that it rained. Then it must be true that there will be puddles of water. Obviously the world doesn’t always conform to the conditions of deductive logical reasoning. There wouldn’t be a puddles of water every time or everywhere it rains as mentioned in the above example But deductive logical reasoning is an important quotient in fields such as law, science, and engineering that possess rigid principles.
Inductive Logical Reasoning
Inductive logical reasoning can be associated with when the secondary sentence, which is in accordance with the primary sentence, could probably be true. The secondary statement in Inductive reasoning is less definitive in comparison with deductive reasoning. But this kind of reasoning proves to be more useful. Induction helps us to guess what will happen in the near future. We observe how things are happening, how things had happened before, and draw conclusions about how things will happen in the future. However these conclusions are based on estimations and not certaninity. For example, there is a probability that it will rain tomorrow. But it is not certain as there are several other factors that could have caused the formation of dark clouds.
Importance of Logical Reasoning
Logical Reasoning, in accordance with Analytical Ability, is useful in everyday situations. It helps you make decisions, identify truths, and arrive at solutions while solving complex problems. It also helps you formulate new ideas and set achievable goals. Logical reasoning is also an important factor for testing intelligence in IQ tests.
Analytical ability is a skill which helps you understand the complexities of a problem and provide solutions for it. Analytical thinking is a process involving utilization of existing resources to accurately assess situations. Analytical ability heavily focuses on the cause and effect relationship that predicts the impacts of different solutions. Employers expect their potential employees to possess the skill of analyzing as it is important for making decisions that benefit their company.
Here are some common factors of analytical ability that can be put to fair use:
- Attention to detail: This is an important factor of analytical ability that involves identifying specific details, picking up on social cues, and finding subtle patterns in an aspect that helps you stock up on data necessary to think analytically.
- Research: A factor of analytical ability that helps in identifying relevant information and reliable sources for the information through research. It further enhances the ability to analyze.
- Data mining: Data mining involves looking through large sets of data and finding patterns among them to make analytical projections about situations in the future.
- Data analysis: Data analysis is the process of using information uncovered by data mining to make models, tables, and other visual representations to help others understand your analysis.
- Diagnostics: Diagnosing the cause of a problem and clearly defining it forms an integral part of analytical ability.
- Organising: Organising information into different categories makes it easier to access the most relevant information and create convenient patterns for analysing information.
- Problem-Solving: Problem-solving is an analytical ability that involves utilising the information gathered on real-world situations to arrive at solutions.
- Forecasting: This process involves making predictions about the future with the information in hand. It encourages further analysis to create plans for handling foreseen challenges.
- Decision making: Taking a course of decision adds credibility to your analysis as it shifts the focus from theories to strategies.
Importance of Analytical Ability
Analytical ability is important because it helps people to arrive at a solution while dealing with complex problems by taking necessary decisions and fruitful actions. This ability comprises several related skills such as decision making, critical thinking, attention to detail, research skills, etc as mentioned above.
Philosophical terms/logical reasoning